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[] [] [] 发布人:佳宏学习网   发布日期:2020-01-08 12:44   共 23 人浏览过












  • 第1章 盎格鲁-撒克逊时期(450~1066)

     1.1 复习笔记

     1.2 考研真题与典型题详解

    第2章 诺曼时期(1066~1350)

     2.1 复习笔记

     2.2 考研真题与典型题详解

    第3章 乔叟时期(1350~1400)

     3.1 复习笔记

     3.2 考研真题与典型题详解

    第4章 15世纪(1400~1550)

     4.1 复习笔记

     4.2 考研真题与典型题详解

    第5章 英国文艺复兴(1550~1642)

     5.1 复习笔记

     5.2 考研真题与典型题详解

    第6章 17世纪(1603~1688)

     6.1 复习笔记

     6.2 考研真题与典型题详解

    第7章 18世纪(1688~1798)

     7.1 复习笔记

     7.2 考研真题与典型题详解

    第8章 浪漫主义时期(1798~1832)

     8.1 复习笔记

     8.2 考研真题与典型题详解

    第9章 维多利亚时期(1832~1901)

     9.1 复习笔记

     9.2 考研真题与典型题详解

    第10章 20世纪

     10.1 复习笔记

     10.2 考研真题与典型题详解


第1章 盎格鲁-撒克逊时期(450~1066)

1.1 复习笔记

. Historical Background(历史背景)

(1) The earliest settlers of the British Isles were the Celts, who migrated to the British Isles about 600 B.C.


(2) From 55 B.C. to 407 A.D. the British Isles were under the rule of the Roman Empire.


(3) About 450 A.D., waves of the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes invaded the British Isles. They settled in England, and drove the Celts into Wales, Scotland, and Ireland.


(4) It was around 500 A.D., in the struggle against Cerdic, the founder of the kingdom of Wessex, that the Celtic King Arthur, a legendary figure, is said to have acquired his fame.


(5) Beginning from the later part of the 8th century, the Danes, or the Vikings, came to invade England, at first, along the eastern coast, but later they threatened to overrun the whole country.


(6) In the second half of the 9th century King Alfred, the Great of Wessex (849~899) led the Anglo-Saxon kings to defeat the invaders by uniting their forces.


(7) In the early 11th century all England was conquered by the Danes for 23 years. Then the Danes were expelled, but in l066 the Normans came from Normandy in northern France to attack England under the leadership of the Duke of Normandy who claimed the English throne.


. Northumbrian School and Wessex literature(诺森伯兰流派和西萨克斯文学)

There were two highlights in the development of the Anglo-Saxon literature.


(1) The first was the Northumbrian School. Its center was the monasteries and abbeys in the kingdom of Northumbria. Related with this school was Caedmon who lived in the 7th century and who turned the stories in the Bible into verse form. Another well-known figure of the Northumbrian School was the Venerable Bede (673~735), a monk who wrote in Latin and whose work. The Ecclesiastical History of English People earned for him the title of “Father of English History”.


(2) In 871 Alfred became king of Wessex. His contributions to English literature are threefold. First, a number of Latin books of educative value were translated into West Saxon dialect. It is said that King Alfred himself translated the history by Bede. Secondly, Alfred was responsible for the launching of The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. It began with the story of Caesar’s conquest and annually recorded important events until 1154. It is an important history book as well as a piece of literary work. Alfred’s third contribution is that he created a style of Anglo-Saxon prose which was not obscure.


. Anglo-Saxon poetry(盎格鲁-撒克逊诗歌)

Some 30, 000 lines of Anglo-Saxon poetry have survived. There are a long epic poetry Beowulf, a number of religious poems and heroic poem, and some elegies. The earliest is Widsith and the last is Maldon, a poem about the battle of Maldon. The most famous Anglo-Saxon poem is Beowulf.


IV. Beowulf(《贝奥武甫》)

(1) About the Poem(关于诗歌)

It was probably written down in the 8th century through the manuscript of the poem preserved today dates back to the10th century and was written in the Wessex dialect. The poem contains altogether3, 183 lines and the story in it is based on partly historical and partly legendary materials, brought over by the Anglo-Saxons from their original homes.


(2) Synopsis(故事梗概)

The epic begins with a brief account of Danish kings down to Hrothgar who builds a splendid hall called Heorot. A monster named Grendel is enraged at the sound of merrymaking which nightly comes from the hall and disturbs his peace. He comes out of the lair at the bottom of the sea and goes to the hall each night and devours warriors. This has been going on for twelve years. Beowulf, nephew to King Hygelac of the Geats, hears of Grendel and sails with fourteen companions to lend help to Hrothgar. The Danish king receives and entertains the visitors and Beowulf boasts of his past exploits and declares his determination to conquer or die. Grendel comes at night and eats up one of Beowulf’s companions. Then a terrible combat follows and Beowulf finally wins by tearing one arm and a shoulder off the monster who flees mortally wounded. Hrothgar rewards the hero with rich gifts.


At night Grendel’s mother comes to avenge her son and carries off Hrothgar’s favourite aeschere. Beowulf is sent for and he sets out with his companions to seek for the sea-monster. He plunges into a pool and reaches a cave beneath the sea. There he fights with Grendel’s mother and eventually succeeds in killing her with a magic sword found hanging in the cave. He returns with the heads of two monsters and is welcomed and further rewarded by Hrothgar. Then he returns to the Geats. In the following year King Hygelac dies and his son succeeds as king but is soon killed in battle with the Swedes. Beowulf is chosen king and rules wisely and well for fifty years.


Then a runaway slave robs part of a hoard of hidden treasure guarded by a dragon and the latter is enraged and ravages the land with fiery breath. Beowulf, now an aged king, resolves to fight the dragon himself. He goes there with twelve companions. The old king orders his men to wait outside while he himself goes down to the mound of treasure. There the aged king fights bravely against the dragon but the sword fails him and he is in danger. One of the companions, Wiglaf, rushes down to help and wounds the monster and then Beowulf kills it with a knife but is himself mortally wounded. He gives his last orders about his own funeral as he dies. Wiglaf sends a messenger to announce the king’s death and the people visit the scene of battle and carry away the treasure. They throw the dragon into the sea and build a funeral pyre to bum Beowulf’s body. The poem ends with the people lamenting Beowulf’s death and praising him as a great and good king.







[电子书+打印版]杨岂深《英国文学选读Book 1》笔记和考研真题详解


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